EPIGENETICS LÀ GÌ

Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression (active versus inactive sầu genes) that vày not involve sầu changes khổng lồ the underlying DNA sequence — a change in phenotype without a change in genotype — which in turn affects how cells read the genes. Epigenetic change is a regular và natural occurrence but can also be influenced by several factors including age, the environment/lifestyle, and disease state. Epigenetic modifications can manifest as commonly as the manner in which cells terminally differentiate to lớn end up as skin cells, liver cells, brain cells, etc. Or, epigenetic change can have sầu more damaging effects that can result in diseases like cancer. At least three systems including DNA 3) group from S-adenosylmethionine to a cytosine nucleotide or lysine or arginine residue.

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">methylation, histone modification và non-coding RNA (ncRNA)-associated gen silencing are currently considered lớn initiate và sustain epigenetic change.1 New và ongoing retìm kiếm is continuously uncovering the role of epigeneticsin a variety of human disorders & fatal diseases.


Still confused? Read a simplified explanation of epigenetics.
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Representation of the chromatin structure, including histones & DNA, which become available khổng lồ epigenetic marks.

The Evolving Landscape of Epigenetic Research: A Brief History

What began as broad retìm kiếm focused on combining genetics và developmental biology by well-respected scientists including Conrad H. Waddington & Ernst Hadorn during the mid-twentieth century has evolved inkhổng lồ the field we currently refer to as epigenetics. The term epigenetics, which was coined by Waddington in 1942, was derived from the Greek word “epigenesis” which originally described the influence of genetic processes on development.2 During the 1990s there became a renewed interest in genetic assimilation. This led to elucidation of the molecular basis of Conrad Waddington’s observations in which environmental áp lực caused genetic assimilation of certain phenotypic characteristics in Drosophila fruit flies. Since then, retìm kiếm efforts have been focused on unraveling the epigenetic mechanisms related to lớn these types of changes.3

Currently, DNA methylation is one of the most broadly studied và well-characterized epigenetic modifications dating baông chồng to lớn studies done by Griffith và Mahler in 1969 which suggested that DNA methylation may be important in long term memory function.4 Other major modifications include chromatin remodeling, histone modifications, and non-coding RNA mechanisms. The renewed interest in epigenetics has led to new findings about the relationship between epigenetic changes & a host of disorders including various cancers, mental retardation associated disorders, immune disorders, neuropsychiatric disorders & pediatric disorders.

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Epigenetics and the Environment: How Lifestyle Can Influence Epigenetic Change from One Generation lớn the Next

The field of epigenetics is quickly growing và with it the understanding that both the environment and individual lifestyle can also directly interact with the genome to lớn influence epigenetic change. These changes may be reflected at various stages throughout a person’s life và even in later generations. For example, human epidemiological studies have provided evidence that prenatal and early postnatal environmental factors influence the adult risk of developing various chronic diseases & behavioral disorders.5 Studies have sầu shown that children born during the period of the Dutch famine from 1944-1945 have sầu increased rates of coronary heart disease and obesity after maternal exposure khổng lồ famine during early pregnancy compared khổng lồ those not exposed to famine.6 Less DNA methylation of the insulin-lượt thích growth factor II (IGF2) ren, a well-characterized epigenetic locus, was found lớn be associated with this exposure.7 Likewise, adults that were prenatally exposed lớn famine conditions have also been reported lớn have sầu significantly higher incidence of schizophrenia.89

Retìm kiếm has also shown that a mother’s exposure to pollution could impact her child’s asthma susceptibility& her intake of Vi-Ta-Min D could change DNA methylationthat influences placenta functioning. It doesn’t stop at the mother, however, as further studies support that the father has a h& in his child’s health và epigenetic marks as well. Read:A Child’s Mental Fitness Could Be Epigenetically Influenced by Dad’s Diet.

How Lifestyle Can Affect Individual Epigenetics và Health

Although our epigenetic marks are more stable during adulthood, they are still thought lớn be dynamic and modifiable by lifestyle choices và environmental influence. It is becoming more apparent that epigenetic effects occur not just in the womb, but over the full course of a human life span, & that epigenetic changes could be reversed. There are numerous examples of epigenetics that show how different lifestyle choices & environmental exposures can alter marks on top of DNA và play a role in determining health outcomes.

The environment is being investigated as a powerful influence on epigenetic tags and disease susceptibility. Pollution has become a significant focus in this retìm kiếm area as scientists are finding that air pollution could alter methyl tags on DNA and increase one’s risk for neurodegenerative sầu disease. Interestingly, B vitamins may protect against harmful epigenetic effects of pollution and may be able to lớn combat the harmful effects that particular matter has on the toàn thân.

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Researchers have sầu found that a ketogenic diet – consuming high amounts of fat, adequate protein, & low carbohydrates – increases an epigenetic agent naturally produced by the body toàn thân.

Diet has also been shown to modify epigenetic tags in significant ways. The field of nutriepigenomics explores how food và epigenetics work together to lớn influence health và wellbeing. For example, a study found that a high fat, low carb diet could open up chromatin và improve mental ability via HDAC inhibitors. Other studies have sầu found that certain compounds within the foods we consume could protect again cancer by adjusting methyl marks on oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. Ultimately, an epigenetic diet may guide people toward the optimal food regimen as scientific studies reveal the underlying mechanisms và impact that different foods have sầu on the epigenome & health.

Explore these topics in epigenetics:

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DISEASES và DISORDERS
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TECHNICAL
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AGING
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DRUGS và ADDICTION
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PARENTING
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ENVIRONMENT
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DIET
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EXERCISE